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The material is also free of plasticizers, so the panels retain their flexibility for a long time when panels made of PVC become brittle over time because the plasticizer gradually escapes from the plastic. A further advantage is its high flexural fatigue strength and buckling resistance. This ensures that there are no annoying cracks or clouding at the folds of the panels. The outstanding optical quality of the panels is achieved through a special polishing technique developed in-house that uses double-belt presses and produces outstanding high-gloss surfaces after IMS Kunststoff AG.

Transparent TPU could be also used for party tents, large marquees, and rain covers for baby carriages.

The Morganville Vampires: Glass Houses Book Review

The tough PVB interlayer. Covestro formerly MaterialScience has optimized the material so that it is softened somewhat when heated by the sun, enabling any unevenness to be leveled out. A further advantage is its high-flexural fatigue strength and buckling resistance. Mallick, in Advanced Materials in Automotive Engineering , The glazing materials in a vehicle are laminated glass used for the windshield, and tempered glass used for side windows, rear window and sunroof. Laminated glass is constructed of two 1.

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The PVB layer makes the windshield shatter-proof, which is essential for the safety of the driver and the front passengers. Tempered glass is a single sheet of glass typically 2. Tempered glass is much easier to penetrate than laminated glass and fractures in a brittle manner when impacted, but it is 3 to 4 times cheaper than laminated glass. Another alternative is to use polycarbonate instead of glass Mori and Koursova, , which has a density of 1.

Polycarbonate is a transparent thermoplastic with optical properties comparable to glass. It is also a ductile polymer with high impact resistance. However, polycarbonate windshields require a scratch resistant coating on the surface. Since polycarbonate has a lower modulus than glass, polycarbonate windshields are thicker than glass windshields.

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They are also more expensive than glass windshields. Another possible material for glazing applications is laminated polymethyl methacrylate, which is being used in the side and front windows of a lightweight demonstrator Lotus Exige. It contains a soft inside layer between two sheets of polymethyl methacrylate and weighs half as much as glass windows.

The glazing materials in a vehicle are the laminated glass used for the windshield, and tempered glass used for side windows, rear window and sunroof. The laminated glass is constructed of two 1. Tempered glass is much easier to penetrate than laminated glass and fractures in a brittle manner when impacted; but it is 3 to 4 times cheaper than laminated glass.

However, polycarbonate windshields require a scratch resistant coating on their surface. Since polycarbonate has a lower modulus than glass, polycarbonate windshields are thicker. They are also more expensive. In Building Materials in Civil Engineering , Safety glass includes physical toughened glass, wire glass and laminated glass which have high mechanical intensity and good impact resistance. When smashed, the broken pieces will not splash or injure people and is fireproof.

Physical toughened glass is a kind of safety glass. The properties of this kind of glass include: high intensity, good impact resistance and thermal stability and good security performance.

Preservation Brief The Preservation and Repair of Historic Stained and Leaded Glass

The security performance of the toughened glass means that the whole glass has high initial stress that the glass will have map cracking and the pieces are small and not sharp which will not injure people when broken. Physical toughened glass is mainly used in the door, window, partition and curtain wall of high-rise buildings.

Wired glass is made by pressing wire mesh into melted glass. This kind of glass has good compact resistance and is fire-proof. When broken, though there are many cracks, the pieces will still hang on the wire rather than splashing to injure people.

Learn more about Laminated Glass

Wired glass is mainly used in the skylight window of workshop, lighting roof and fire-proof door and window. Laminated glass is made by inserting hyaloids plastics plates into two or more pieces of glasses which are heated, pressed and bound together to form flat, curved or compound glass products. Heat-insulating glass includes heat-absorbing glass, heat-reflecting glass, and hollow glass which have both decoration and heat preservation and insulation functions. This kind of glass is mainly used in door, window and curtain wall.

Heat-absorbing glass is flat glass that can not only absorb lots infrared radiation but also have good light transmission rate. Most common colors of this kind of glass are gray, tawny, blue, green, etc.. Heat-reflecting glass has good heat reflection and light transmittance and is also called coated glass or mirror glass.

Heat-reflecting glass is made by spraying gold, silver, nickel, chrome, iron or other metal or metallic oxide in ways of heating, vaporizing or chemical methods.

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  • Hollow glasses are made of two or more pieces of flat glass which are separated by frames and whose sides are sealed by glue with dry air in. Hollow glassed are made of heat-absorbing glass, heat-reflecting glass, etc..

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    Hollow glass has good heat preserving, energy saving and sound insulating functions and can effectively prevent frozen dew. This kind of glass is mainly used in buildings which need the functions of heating, air-condition, noise and dew prevention and need no direct light but particular light, e.

    Figured glass is made by pressing melted glass with carved roller. The designs can be pressed on both sides of glass in colors of pale yellow, blue and olive color. Frosted glass is a kind of ground glass which is made by sanding the surface with the mixture of silica sand, adamas, garnet and water by machine or hand and then etching the surface with hydrofluoric acid uniformly.

    This kind of glass is light translucent and the light go through is soft. Sprayed glass is made by sticking painting to glass and painting with protective coating. These three kinds of glass are commonly used in windows, doors of toilet, bathroom and office.

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    This kind of brick has function of heating preservation and sound insulation. Because the light going through is soft and gracious, the brick is used in hyaloids walls, partition, hall and corridors. Glass mosaic is made of glass and un-melted small crystals mainly quartz in color of red, yellow, blue, white, black, etc.. The glass is hyaloids, translucent or opaque and has golden or silvery spots or streaks.

    Glass mosaic makes light soft, has good chemical and thermal stability and is plain, elegant and beautiful. The way the window opens has a massive impact on its usefulness, not just where it is placed or the size of the window. In this blog we examine seven types of windows, listing their benefits and challenges to help you design your tiny home so that it ventilates air and moisture; lets in precious light and looks beautiful.

    We will also discuss the pros and cons of using wooden, aluminum and vinyl window frames, as well as which glass types to choose for safe transport of your tiny home on wheels. Double hung double sash windows are made from two separate window sections or sashes that move up and down past one another in the window frame. The two sashes can move in unison bottom sash goes up as the top sash moves down or they can move independently depending the type of sash mechanism. The window pivots allowing the window to sit perpendicular to the frame.

    An open center pivot window creates an opening on both sides of the vertically-hung glass. Slider windows are made of two usually equally sized panes of glass. One is fixed and the other moves across it to open. Louvre windows are made from many slats of glass that are stacked vertically that all open and shut in unison with one lever. When choosing the type of glass to use for your windows, there are a few difference from choosing windows in a conventional house. Double-glazed windows are hailed as the epitome of good sense when it comes to insulating conventionally sized houses.

    This is because the insulation provided in double-glazed windows is great for retaining heat in winter. Large windows are notorious for being cold in winter, so the double-glazing helps to trap heat in and reduces condensation forming on the windows. However it is easy to heat tiny spaces. In most Australian climate zones we are not concerned about how to retain heat in winter in a tiny house on wheels, we are more interested in how to keep the space cool in summer.

    Using a small convection heater or a tiny wood heater does the trick of warming in winter. In fact, I often joke that heating a tiny house is so easy that you can make soup and your house will be warm! Double-glazed windows do not provide effective insulation against heat entering the house in summer. Only a radiant barrier does that, which is why we offer fold-away awnings as a standard on all our tiny house designs.

    Putting a shade covering over a large window is a great way of keeping radiant heat from the sun out of your micro house. We are also concerned with weight limitations to make your tiny house on wheels safe to tow. Double-glazing your windows may just add unnecessary weight to your tiny house vehicle. Caveat: Of course all tiny houses are different and respond to different needs. If you are designing a tiny house in a cold climate like in Tasmania and you have a massive plate-glass feature window, then yes, you might benefit from the insinuative properties of a double-glazed window.

    As tiny homes on wheels are vehicles and need to be safe to tow, an important aspect of window choice comes down to what happens in the event that they break. The glass is subject to road vibrations which is like a really long earthquake for your tiny house so it is best to both plan for breakage and work to avoid breakage.

    In planning for breakage, it is best to use shatter-proof glass for all the windows in your tiny transportable house. For this you have two main options:. Tempered glass is the type used in passenger windows in cars. This same feature is excellent for your tiny house.